Download e-book for kindle: A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction by Michael Anderson

By Michael Anderson

ISBN-10: 1615305769

ISBN-13: 9781615305766

Even supposing we frequently seek social and ancient records for clues to our prior, organic records probably carry an important proof of our background. The characteristics we inherit from our mom and dad and go directly to our offspring are encoded in our genes and DNA and display a lot approximately either our origins and our destiny. This quantity examines the interesting biology in the back of genetics and genetic problems. It additionally conscientiously considers the foundations of gene manipulation and genetic engineering whose capability to revolutionize medication, undefined, and agriculture is changing into more and more glaring with each new discovery.

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Extra resources for A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction to Biology)

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Most sexlinked traits result from genes located on the X chromosome. Few genes have been identified on the Y chromosome. Because of this, some people refer to sex-linked traits as X-linked traits. Sex-linked traits may be recessive or dominant. Recessive sex-linked traits occur more frequently in men because males have no allele on the Y chromosome to counteract the effects of a recessive allele on the X chromosome. The genotype of these males is called hemizygous. The female must inherit the recessive allele on both of her X chromosomes to fully display the trait.

The chemical makeup of genes and chromosomes had long been a mystery until 1944, when Oswald Avery discovered that DNA was the basic genetic material of the cell. The molecular structure of DNA was determined in 1953 by James Watson of the United States and Francis Crick of England. French geneticists François Jacob and Jacques Monod later determined how DNA directs protein synthesis, thereby deciphering the genetic code of the DNA molecule. Scientists working on the Human Genome Project, a study completed in 2003 that had been 13 years in the making, determined the DNA sequence of the three billion base pairs in human DNA and identified the almost 25,000 genes in the human genome.

Recognition and Cleavage Of the three types of restriction enzymes, type II is the most useful in genetic 58 The Practice of Genetic Engineering engineering. Types I and III restriction enzymes cleave DNA randomly, often at some distance from the recognition sequence. By contrast, type II restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sites within the recognition sequence. Each time a particular restriction enzyme is used, the DNA is cut at precisely the same places in the molecule. Today more than 3,600 type II restriction enzymes are known, forming a molecular tool kit that allows scientists to cut chromosomes into various desired lengths, depending on how many different restriction enzymes are mixed with the chromosome under investigation.

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A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction to Biology) by Michael Anderson

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